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Piano: Mechanism, Notes, History, and Benefits

Written by Yelda Naz Usal

There are many different instruments in the world. One of them is piano. The piano is a keyboard musical instrument that has wire strings that sound when struck by felt-covered hammers operated from the keyboard (1). Piano also called pianoforte, French piano, or pianoforte (1). The standard modern piano has 88 keys and consists of 7 full octaves and a few keys (1). White keys represent diatonic notes and black keys represent their respective sharps and flats (1). Sharps make a thick note’s sound and flats make a thin note’s sound. Piano pedals are used to change the tone of the instrument. The piano has 3 pedals. 

Piano Mechanism

          The right-hand pedal’s name is the Sustain pedal and this pedal extends the sound (2). When using this pedal mechanism that stops the vibration of sounds move away from the wire (2). The mid pedal’s name is the Sostenuto pedal and this pedal extends the selected note and prevents the note from mixing with other notes (2). The left-hand pedal’s name is the Soft pedal and this pedal softens the sound, but the soft pedal isn’t like the real soft pedal on the modern wall piano because this pedal shifts the mechanism to the right but hammers and wire are aslope and oblique for this reason the mechanism doesn’t move (2). If it moves it makes the wrong sound for this reason the hammer mechanism works by approaching (2). This means this pedal uses a half-blow effect for faster timing also this pedal softens the piano sound level by staying close to the wire and striking the wire from here (2). 

Notes on Piano

        There are 7 notes in the world. These are C, D, E, F, G, A and B. New songs appear with combinations of notes. Each key represents a note. C is left of the 2 black keys, D is between 2 black keys, E is right of the two black keys, F is left of the 3 black keys, G is between 3 black keys but between the first and second keys, and L is between 3 black but between second and third black keys, B is right of the 3 black keys on the piano keyboard.  There are 5 black keys in an octave. The first black key is between C and D. This key is C sharp and D flat. The second black key is between D and E. This key is D sharp and E flat. The third black key is between F and G. This key is F sharp and G flat. The fourth black key is between G and A. This key is G sharp and A flat. Fifth black key between A and B. This key is A sharp and B flat. But E and B sharps and F and C flats aren’t black keys. E and B sharps are after notes from themselves. F and C  flats are before notes from themselves. Keys’ places are the same for both G and F Clef.


         Each note has a place on the staff. There are 5 lines on the staff. C in the first additional line. D under the first line. E in the first and second lines. F between the first and second lines. G in the second line. A between the second and third lines. B in the third line. Deep C between the third and fourth lines. Deep D in the fourth line. Deep E between the fourth and fifth lines. And other notes in additional lines.

History of Piano

Piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Italy (3). Piano is classified as a percussion instrument because hummers struck to the wire (3). The piano has the same mechanism as the Dulcimer (3) Dulcimer appeared in the eleventh century (3). Dulcimer has a hummer for striking to the wire like a piano (3). For this reason, Dulcimer is thought to be the piano’s direct ancestor (3). The Clavichord appeared in the fourteenth century (3). Strike a key provided by a brass rod, called a tangent, to strike the string and cause vibrations that emit sound over four to five octaves (3). The harpsichord was invented in Italy in around 1500 (3). When a key is pressed, a plectrum attached to a long wood strip called a jack plucks the string to make music (3). This system of strings and soundboard and the overall structure of the instrument resemble those that can be found in a piano (3). Cristofori was unsatisfied with the lack of control that musicians had over the volume level of the harpsichord (3). He is credited for switching out the plucking mechanism with a hammer to create the modern piano around the year 1700 (3). Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frederic Chopin, Myra Hess, and Clara Schumann are the best pianists in the world (1).

Split concentration is the essential element of playing the piano. Pressing keys together, using the pedals, and controlling sound (4). When a person becomes good at playing the piano person does more than 1 thing at the same time (4). A  study published by the American Psychiatric Association found that the school performance of kids who played musical instruments was much higher than the performance of their peers who didn’t play musical instruments, especially in their English exams, math, and science (4). Playing the piano improves hand-eye coordination (4).


  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2023, October 5). Piano | Definition, history, types, & facts. Encyclopedia Britannica.

  2. Piyano Pedallarının Evrimi ! (n.d.). Zuhal Müzik.

  3. Nadia Dandachi. (2020, January 19). The benefits of playing piano in science. nadiadandachi.

  4. The origins of the Piano: The story of the piano's invention - Musical instrument guide - Yamaha Corporation. (n.d.). Yamaha Corporation - Global.


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