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Chronological Order of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (1987-2022)

Updated: Jan 29

Written by Bekir Baris Cavus


A chronology of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict from the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, in 1897The struggle between Israel and the Palestinians is one of the longest in the world and one that is currently on the rise. The cause of the dispute is the claim to the area between the Mediterranean coast and the Jordan River.



1897 - First Zionist Congress


In 1896, the journalist Theodor Herzl published a book called "Der Judenstaat" (The Jewish State), and the ideas in this book were discussed at the congress.



1917 - As the balance shifts


At the time, Palestine and the surrounding area were under Ottoman rule until the Arabs took it over. Britain occupied the area at the end of the war, in 1918. Three promises were made during this period of change. In 1916, Sir Henry McMahon, the British administrator in Egypt, promised independence to the Arabs in the Ottoman Arab provinces. However, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, secretly signed between the victorious states France and Britain, divided the region between these countries and envisaged the establishment of an international administration in Palestine. On 3.1917, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour promised to establish a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine. 



1929-1936 Arab reaction


Hundreds of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine under the British mandate. This sparked anger and rebellion among Arab communities.


In 1922, a British census showed that the number of Jews had reached 11 percent of Palestine's population of 750,000. Another 300,000 Jews would arrive in the next 15 years.


As a result of these migrations, hostility between Zionists and Arabs escalated into bloody clashes in August 1929. 133 Jews were killed by Palestinians. British police also killed 110 Palestinians.



1947 - United Nations in action


Britain, which had administered Palestine since 1920, handed over responsibility for resolving the Zionist-Arab conflict to the United Nations in 1947. Jews now made up a third of the population. But they held 6 percent of the land.



1948 - Establishment of Israel


The State of Israel was the first Jewish state to be established in 2,000 years. It was proclaimed in Tel Aviv at 16:00 on May 14, 1948. It came into force the day after the last British troops left the region. Palestinians refer to May 15 as "Al Nakba", the day of the "Catastrophe".



1964 - Establishment of the PLO


Since 1948, there has been competition among Arab states to lead the response to the emergence of Israel. The Palestinians were therefore bystanders.


Founded in Jerusalem in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was immediately recognized by the Arab states. These states essentially wanted the PLO to remain under their control.



1973 Yom Kippur War


Yom Kippur, the "Day of Atonement", is the most important Jewish religious holiday. Egypt and Syria, unable to regain the territories they lost in the 1967 war through diplomatic means, launched an offensive against Israel during the Yom Kippur holiday in 1973. These battles are also known as the Ramadan War.



1982 - Israel invades Lebanon


Israel has moved troops into the south of Lebanon to protect settlements near the Lebanese border from attacks. But Defense Minister Ariel Sharon led the army all the way to the capital Beirut and expelled the PLO from the country.



1988 - PLO opens the door to peace


Despite its great military power, Israel was unable to stop the intifada that began in 1987. The protests were supported by all Palestinians living under Israeli occupation.

For the PLO, which had settled in Tunisia after its expulsion from Lebanon in 1982, the uprising was a red flag. In the struggle for a Palestinian "revolution", attention had shifted from the PLO and the diaspora to the occupied territories. The PLO began to think that it might lose its leading role.



2018 - Israeli army kills 59 Palestinians


January 3, 2018: The Israeli Parliament (Knesset) passed the 'United Jerusalem' law. After a controversial session lasting more than 3 hours, the Unified Jerusalem law was passed by 64 votes to 51. The law makes it virtually impossible for Israel to withdraw from any part of the city, including occupied East Jerusalem. According to the law, at least a two-thirds majority in parliament, i.e. the approval of 80 deputies, will be required to approve the withdrawal. There are 120 seats in the Knesset. The law also contains a clause stipulating that the law cannot be repealed in the future unless 61 Knesset members vote for it.



2022 - A year of escalating occupation and conflict 


January 6, 2022: Israeli forces raided the Balata refugee camp near Nablus in the West Bank, killing a 21-year-old Palestinian.


January 12, 2022: Omar al-Assad (80), a Palestinian citizen of the United States living in the West Bank village of Jaljaliya in Ramallah, died as a result of violence committed by Israeli police in custody. "We are also in contact with the Israeli government to seek clarification on this incident, and as you may have seen, the Israel Defense Forces have indicated that there is an ongoing investigation into this matter, and we support a thorough investigation into the circumstances of this incident," said US State Department spokesperson Ned Price.



2023 - A New War


This war was caused by the infiltration of many Palestinian militants into Israel. But this is not the only reason for this war, all the other events I have described are the reasons for this war.



References:

  1. Bianet. (2017, December 7). İsrail-Filistin Sorununun Tarihçesi: 1897'den 2022'ye. https://bianet.org/haber/israil-filistin-sorununun-tarihcesi-1897-den-2022-ye-192219

  2. Human rights in Israel and occupied Palestinian territories. (n.d.). Amnesty International. https://www.amnesty.org/en/location/middle-east-and-north-africa/israel-and-occupied-palestinian-territories/report-israel-and-occupied-palestinian-territories

  3. Israeli-Palestinian conflict. (n.d.). Global Conflict Tracker. https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/israeli-palestinian-conflict

  4. Israel-Palestine conflict: Latest updates. (n.d.). Anadolu Ajansı. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/israel-palestine-conflict-latest-updates/3017907
















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